Title: Exhaust Gas Condensation During Engine Cold Start and Application of the Dry-Wet Correction Factor
Citation: APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL vol. 9 no. 11 p. 2263
Publisher: MDPI
Publication Year: 2019
JRC N°: JRC116894
ISSN: 2076-3417 (online)
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC116894
DOI: 10.3390/app9112263
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: Gas components, like carbon monoxide (CO) and dioxide (CO2), can be measured on a wet- or dry-basis depending on whether the water is left or removed from the sample before analysis. The dry concentrations of gaseous components in the exhaust from internal combustion engines are converted to wet concentrations with conversion factors based on the combustion products and the fuel properties. Recent CO2 measurements with portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) compared to laboratory grade equipment showed differences during the first minutes after engine start. In this study we compared instruments measuring on a dry- and wet-basis using different measuring principles {non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)} at the exhaust of gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel light-duty and L-category vehicles. The results showed an underestimation of the CO2 and CO mass emissions up to 13% at cold start when the conversion factor is applied and not direct “wet” measurements are taken, raising concerns about reported CO2 and CO cold start emissions in some cases. The underestimation was negligible (<1%) for CO2 when the whole test (20-30 min) was considered, but not for CO (1-10% underestimation) because the majority of emissions takes place at cold start. Exhaust gas temperature, H2O measurements and different expressions of the dry-wet corrections confirmed that the differences are due to condensation at the exhaust pipes and aftertreatment devices when the surface temperatures are lower than the dew point of the exhaust gases. The results of this study help to interpret differences when comparing instruments with different principle of operation at the same location, instruments sampling at different locations, or the same instrument measuring different driving test cycles or at different ambient temperatures (e.g. -7°C).
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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