Title: Particulate emissions from L-Category vehicles towards Euro 5
Authors: KONTSES ANASTASIOSNTZIACHRISTOS LEONIDASZARDINI ALESSANDROPAPADOPOULOS GIORGOSGIECHASKIEL BAROUCH
Citation: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT vol. 182 p. 109071
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Publication Year: 2020
JRC N°: JRC116963
ISSN: 0048-9697 (online)
URI: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC116963
DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.109071
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: The current experimental study presents particulate emissions from 30 Euro 1-4 L-category vehicles (i.e. 2-, 3- and 4-wheelers such as mopeds, motorcycles, quads and minicars, registered in Europe between 2009 and 2016) tested on a chassis dynamometer. The objectives were to identify those sub-categories with high emissions, to assess whether the measures prescribed in the Euro 5 legislation will effectively control particulate emissions and finally to investigate the need for additional measures. The results showed that 2-stroke (2S) mopeds and diesel minicars comprised the vehicles with the highest particulate mass (PM) and solid particle number above 23 nm (SPN23) emissions (up to 64 mg/km and 4.5 × 10^13 p/km, respectively). It is uncertain whether the installation of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is a cost-effective measure for diesel mini-cars in order to comply with Euro 5 standard, while advanced emission controls will be required for 2S mopeds, if such vehicles remain competitive for Euro 5. Regarding 4-stroke mopeds, motorcycles and quads, PM emissions were one order of magnitude lower than 2S ones and already below the Euro 5 limit. Nevertheless, SPN23 emissions from these sub-categories were up to 5 times higher than the Euro 6 passenger cars limit (6×10^11 p/km). Even recent Euro 4 motorcycles eceeded this limit by up to 3 times. These results indicate that L-category vehicles are a significant contributor to vehicular particulate emissions and should be further monitored during and after the introduction of the Euro 5 step. Moreover, including SPN in the range 10–23 nm increases emission levels by up to 2.4 times compared to SPN23, while volatile and semi-volatile particle numbers were even higher. Finally, cold engine operation was found to be a significant contributor on SPN23 emissions, especially for vehicles with lower overall emission levels. These results indicate that a specific particle number limit may be required for L-category to align emissions with passenger cars.
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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