Title: Particle Number Measurements Directly from the Tailpipe for Type Approval of Heavy-Duty Engines
Citation: APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL vol. 9 no. 20 p. 4418
Publisher: MDPI
Publication Year: 2019
JRC N°: JRC118075
ISSN: 2076-3417 (online)
URI: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC118075
DOI: 10.3390/app9204418
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: The type approval of heavy-duty engines requires measurement of particulates downstream of a proportional to the exhaust flow partial flow dilution system. However, for particle number systems, which measure in real time, this is not necessary and a fixed dilution could be used. In order to assess this dilution possibility, an inter-laboratory exercise was conducted, where a “Golden” system measuring directly from the tailpipe with “hot” (150 °C) fixed dilution was compared with the laboratory regulated systems. Additional “Golden” counters were measuring from 10 nm, below the current cut-off size of 23 nm defined in the regulation, in order to collect data below 23 nm and to confirm that the direct sampling is also possible for smaller sizes. Seven diesel engines and two CNG (compressed naturals gas) engines were used in six laboratories. The results of the “Golden” instruments were within 25% in most cases, reaching 40% in two laboratories for both >23 nm and >10 nm. The repeatability of the measurements (10% to 40%) remained the same for both systems with both cut-off sizes. One test with regeneration showed clear difference between the 10 nm systems, indicating that the thermal pre-treatment only with evaporation tube might not be adequate. Another system measuring from the tailpipe with a fixed “cold” (at ambient temperature) dilution gave differences of up to 50% in most cases (on average +26%). Dedicated tests with this system showed that the differences were the same with fixed or proportional dilution, indicating that it is not the concept that resulted in the overestimation, but the calibration of the system. The main conclusion of this study is that direct sampling with fixed dilution from the tailpipe can be introduced in the future regulation.
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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