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|Title:||Cadmium contents of vertically and horizontally deposited winter precipitation in Central Europe: Spatial distribution and long-term trends|
|Authors:||BOHDALKOVA LEONA; NOVAK MARTIN; KRACHLER MICHAEL; MIKOVA JITKA; CHRASTNY VLADISLAV; VESELOVSKY FRANTISEK; VOLDRICHOVA PETRA; PACHEROVA PETRA; KOMAREK ARNOST; PRECHOVA EVA|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION vol. 265 p. 114949 (11 pp)|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Cadmium (Cd) and its forms has recently been a focus of attention due to its toxic effects on human health and the environment. We evaluated the atmospheric deposition of Cd during three consecutive winter seasons (2009-2011) at 10 mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic along the borders with Poland, Germany, Austria and Slovakia. Cadmium concentrations of soluble and insoluble forms in both horizontal (rime) and vertical (snow) deposition were determined using sector-field ICP-MS. Across the sites, 94% of the total winter Cd deposition occurred in the soluble (bioavailable/environmental available) Cd form. Mean concentrations of soluble Cd in rime were six times higher than in snow (398 vs. 66 ng L-1). Vertical deposition contributed as much as 41% to the total winter Cd input. Significant among-site variability in winter Cd deposition ranged between 13 and 108 g m-2 winter-1. Overall, Cd concentrations in winter deposition did not reach legislated drinking water limits and did not pose a direct threat for human health. Long-term trends (1996-2017) in winter Cd deposition were evaluated using six GEOMON sites (a monitoring network of small forested catchments). Since 1996, Cd input in winter atmospheric deposition was reduced by 73-93%. Simultaneously, we found declines in among-site variability in winter Cd inputs. The highest recent winter Cd inputs were found at sites in the northeast of the country. A north-south pollution gradient, which has frequently been mentioned in the literature, was not observed, with both northwest sites and southern sites among those with the lowest Cd pollution. Backward trajectories of the HYSPLIT model for fresh snow samples identified Poland and Germany as major transboundary Cd pollution sources for the Czech Republic.|
|JRC Directorate:||Nuclear Safety and Security|
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