Title: Feasibility study about the use of element profiles determined by ED-XRF as screening method to authenticate coconut sugar commercially available.
Citation: EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY vol. 246 no. 10 p. 2101-2109
Publisher: SPRINGER
Publication Year: 2020
JRC N°: JRC121269
ISSN: 1438-2377 (online)
URI: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC121269
DOI: 10.1007/s00217-020-03559-z
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: Financial gain is a main driver for committing food fraud and replacement of ingredients with cheaper alternatives is an easy way to do it. Coconut sugar is becoming popular as an alternative to beetroot or cane sugar due to its high mineral content and lower glycaemic index. As its market price is about twice as high as that of conventional sugar, coconut sugar may become target to fraudulent manipulation. The present work explores the feasibility of using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence as a screening tool to verify its authenticity. Mass fractions of P, Cl, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr determined in eleven coconut, ten cane and one beetroot sugar samples, purchased in Belgian, Spanish, Polish and Italian supermarkets were used for discriminating the different sugars. On average, the mass fractions of all the mentioned elements were higher in coconut than in cane and beetroot sugars. Multivariate analysis of the elemental fingerprint by Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) was used for authentication purposes. Models constructed were characterised by zero false positives; three coconut sugars (27 %) could not be classified as such, neither as cane sugars.
JRC Directorate:Health, Consumers and Reference Materials

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