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|Title:||Tradable Certificates for Renewable Electricity and Energy Savings|
|Authors:||BERTOLDI PAOLO; HULD THOMAS|
|Citation:||ENERGY POLICY no. 34 p. 212-222|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energyefficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations,the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular,the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues,including the assessment of the baseline,as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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