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|Title:||Research on Particle Emissions of Modern 2-Stroke Scooters|
|Authors:||CZERWINSKI Jan; COMTE Pierre; LARSEN BO; MARTINI GIORGIO; MAYER Andreas|
|Citation:||SAE Technical Paper Series vol. SP-2024 p. 1-14|
|Publisher:||Society of Automotive Engineers|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Limited and nonlimited emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Agency of Environment Forests and Landscape (SAEFL, BUWAL)*). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburetor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions with different lube oils and fuels were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet *). Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for PAH & SOF/INSOF, as well as for VOC were carried out in an international project network. It can be stated, that the oil and fuel quality have a considerable influence on the particle emissions, which are mainly oil condensates. The engine technology influences the (nano)particle emissions by: mixture preparation, mixture tuning, oil consumption, postoxidation, quality, condition and temperature of the catalyst. Since the particulate emission of the 2-S consists mainly of lube oil condensates the minimization of oil consumption stays always an important goal. The amount of total PAH, as well as the toxicity equivalence factor TEQ correlate roughly with the total particle mass PM.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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