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|Title:||Municipal Waste Management Pilot Studies Based on Life Cycle Approaches|
|Citation:||Proceedings of 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering - Towards a Closed Loop Economy vol. 2 p. 465-469|
|Publisher:||Katholieke Universiteit Leuven / International Academy for Production Engineering|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Life cycle thinking is essential in the challenge of sustainable waste management, as highlighted in the European Commission’s Strategy on the Prevention and Recycling of Waste. In collaboration with the new member states, acceding countries, and associated countries of the European Union, the European Commission’s Directorate General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) conducted regional pilot case studies for municipal solid waste management. These studies demonstrated the potential contribution of life cycle thinking in decision making. While not essential for life cycle thinking, life cycle assessments supported the studies with quantitative insights of the various trade-offs between options. The objective of this paper is to present the outcomes of the first phase of these demonstration studies and a summary of the resultant discussions. The preliminary life cycle case studies were discussed with government representatives in Malta (November 2005). The first phase was prepared using a straightforward software that was specifically designed to demonstrate and encourage life cycle thinking in the context of municipal waste management. Based on the situation in 2002-2003, the reference scenario, three alternatives were established to provide preliminary insights into the potential benefits and trade-offs related to the different options that meet the compliance requirements of the Packaging Directive 2004/12/EC and of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. Three additional, more ambitious, scenarios addressed beyond compliance benefits. The study results highlighted the waste flows, quantities of solid waste landfilled, emissions to air, to water, and contributions to climate change for each scenario. These took into account the upstream and downstream emissions and resource consumption associated with energy recovery, replacement of conventional fertilizers, and the replacement of virgin materials through recycling.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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