Title: Hyperspectral Analysis of Oil and Oil-Impacted Soils for Remote Sensing Purposes
Publication Year: 2007
JRC N°: JRC36875
Other Identifiers: EUR 22739 EN
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC36875
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: While conventional multispectral sensors record the radiometric signal only at a handful of wavelengths, hyperspectral sensors measure the reflected solar signal at hundreds contiguous and narrow wavelength bands, spanning from the visible to the infrared. Hyperspectral images provide ample spectral information to identify and distinguish between spectrally similar (but unique) materials, providing the ability to make proper distinctions among materials with only subtle signature differences. Hyperspectral images show hence potentiality for proper discrimination between oil slicks and other natural phenomena (look-alike); and even for proper distinctions between oil types. Additionally they can give indications on oil volume. At present, many airborne hyperspectral sensors are available to collect data, but only two civil spaceborn hyperspectral sensors exist as technology demonstrator: the Hyperion sensor on NASA’s EO-1 satellite and the CHRIS sensor on the European Space Agency’s PROBA satellite. Consequently, the concrete opportunity to use spaceborn hyperspectral remote sensing for operational oil spill monitoring is yet not available. Nevertheless, it is clear that the future of satellite hyperspectral remote sensing of oil pollution in the marine/coastal environment is very promising. In order to correctly interpret the hyperspectral data, the retrieved spectral signatures must be correlated to specific materials. Therefore specific spectral libraries, containing the spectral signature of the materials to be detected, must be built up. This requires that highly accurate reflected light measurements of samples of the investigated material must be performed in the lab or in the field. Accurate measurements of the spectral reflectance of several samples of oil-contaminated soils have been performed in the laboratory, in the 400-2500 nm wavelength range. Samples of the oils spilt from the Erika and the Prestige tankers during the major accidents of 1999 and 2002 were also collected and analyzed in the same spectral range, using a portable spectrophotometer. All measurements showed the typical absorption features of hydrocarbon-bearing substances: the two absorption peaks centered at 1732 and 2310 nm.
JRC Directorate:Space, Security and Migration

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