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|dc.identifier.citation||FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN vol. 16 no. 4 p. 330-351||en_GB|
|dc.description.abstract||Biomarkers represent strategic tools to evaluate human exposure to stressors, and to quantify the effects of that exposure to humans. Biomarkers act as quantitative measures of chemical exposures and biologically effective doses, as well as warning signals ob biological effects. They can help to characterize inter-individual susceptibilities, as well as define critical windows of exposure. Biomarkers often represent aggregate exposures, different ways of up-take and/or cumulative effects. Finally, biomarkers may be used to identify the early stage of health impairment, and to understand basic mechanisms of action and response in biomedical research. The bottleneck is in the operational characteristics, and in the reliability of biomarkers in the low concentration ranges relevant to the exposures to chemicals and chemical mixtures released from various sources. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated, although not exhaustive, overview of the biomarkers of benzene, a proven human carcinogen, as explanatory example of the current state-of-the science of the biomarkers concept in the present context of the chemical risk assessment. Benzene is one of the most investigated and widely used substances in the world, both as such and in preparations or in products/articles. Benzene has also constituted a model for the development of the concept of biomarkers and its use in risk assessment.||en_GB|
|dc.description.sponsorship||JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing||en_GB|
|dc.publisher||PARLAR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (P S P)||en_GB|
|dc.title||Biomarkers of Benzene - a State-of-the-Science Review||en_GB|
|dc.type||Articles in periodicals and books||en_GB|
|JRC Directorate:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
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