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|Title:||Development and Validation of a Method for Origin Determination of Uranium-bearing Material - JRC-ITU-TN-2008/25|
|Publisher:||European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Transuranium Elements|
|Abstract:||The 2003 European Security Strategy stated that security is a precondition of development. Conflict not only destroys infrastructure, including social infrastructure; it also encourages criminality, deters investment and makes normal economic activity impossible. Europe faces threats which are more diverse, less visible and less predictable: 1) Terrorism puts lives at risk and terrorists are willing to use unlimited violence to cause massive casualties. 2) Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) is potentially the greatest threat to our security, advances in the biological sciences may increase the potency of biological weapons in the coming years and attacks with chemical and radiological materials are also a serious possibility. 3) Regional Conflicts can lead to extremism, terrorism and state failure; it provides opportunities for organised crime. Regional insecurity can fuel the demand for WMD. 4) State Failure is another source of threats. Bad governance ¿ corruption, abuse of power, weak institutions and lack of accountability - and civil conflict corrode States from within. Collapse of the State can be associated with obvious threats, such as organised crime or terrorism. The Nuclear Security strategy pursues the similar objectives to some elements of the EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. These provide a comprehensive approach to nuclear security and has been developed and implemented along the traditional 3 phases: a) Identification, analysis and prevention of the risk (e.g. for diversion of the sensitive material) (first line of defence); b) Detection and early warning for the risk in course (e.g. the theft of nuclear material) (second line of defence) and c) Reaction to and remediation of the risk (e.g. response plan for illicit trafficking) (third line of defence). Furthermore, the enlargement of the EU has recently modified its borders, expanded the risk and obliged the EU to work with new countries. Nuclear Security having a strong international dimension, the collaboration with traditional partners, such as the IAEA or US-DoE has been strengthened and broadened to areas that had not been covered by existing agreements.|
|JRC Directorate:||Nuclear Safety and Security|
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