Title: Stock, Career and Mobility of Researchers in the EU
Authors: MOGUEROU PhilippeDI PIETROGIACOMO Maria Paola
Publisher: European Commission
Publication Year: 2008
JRC N°: JRC46823
ISBN: 978-92-79-10047-5
ISSN: 1018-5593
Other Identifiers: EUR 23528 EN
URI: http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=1800
DOI: 10.2791/53314
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: This report discusses the evolution of the stock of researchers in the EU, the supply of higher education graduates and postdoctorates in the EU, and the international mobility of researchers within, into and out of the EU. The stock of researchers in the EU In 2005, there were 1.3 million full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the EU-27, 1.4 million in the US, 704 000 in Japan and 1.1 million in China (3.9 million in total in the OECD region). Demand for researchers is lower in the EU-27 (0.56% of labour force) than in the US (0.93%) and Japan (1.06%). The corresponding share is 0.70% on average in the OECD region and 0.15% in China. The number of FTE researchers increased from 964 000 in 1995 to 1.3 million in 2005 in the EU-27 (+3.0% per year). Over the same period, the increases were 3.0% per year in the US, 0.5% in Japan, 7.9% in China, and 3.3% on average in the OECD region. Business researchers accounted for 0.27% of labour force in the EU-27 in 2005, 0.74% in the US, 0.72% in Japan and 0.09% in China (0.70% on average in the OECD). The number of business researchers increased from 436 000 to 629 000 over 1998-2005 in the EU-27 (+3.7% per year on average). The corresponding growths were 3.4% per year in the US, 2.3% in Japan and 13.7% in China (OECD average: 3.7%). The supply of higher education graduates and postdoctorates in the EU In 2005, 3 million tertiary degrees with academic orientation were granted in the EU-27, against 2.1 million in the US and 640 000 in Japan. From 1998 to 2005, a regular increase was observed: the number of degrees increased by 6.7% per year on average in the EU-27, by 3.3% in the US and by 1.3% in Japan. In 2005, some 100 000 doctoral degrees were conferred in the EU-27, against 53 000 in the US and 15 000 in Japan. From 1998 to 2005, the number of doctoral degrees increased respectively by 4.4% per year on average in the EU-27, by 2% in the US and by 5.7% in Japan. International mobility of researchers within, into and out of the EU In 2005 in the EU, of the 487 000 doctoral candidates, 28 000 held the nationality of another EU Member State, accounting for 5.8%, and 69 000 were citizens of third countries, accounting for 14.1%. 5.3% were from Asia, the Middle East and Oceania, 3.7% from Africa, 3.1% from South and central America, 1.1% from other European countries (outside the EU-27) and 0.9% from North America. China ranks top for the number of its citizens' doctoral candidates in the EU. Mexico and Morocco rank second and third. The US ranks fourth, with 3 000 individuals, accounting for about 4.4% of doctoral candidates from third countries (or 0.62% of the total number of doctoral candidates) in the EU. In 2005, 43 300 doctorates were granted by US universities. Of the 2005 doctorate recipients with known citizenships, about 35% were non-US citizens. The 8 top EU countries in terms of the number of doctorates conferred to its citizens are as follows: Germany (11th), Romania (12th), Italy (14th), the UK (15th), France (17th), Spain (20th), Greece (23rd) and Bulgaria (26th). These 8 EU countries account for 3.1% of the total number of doctorates conferred by US institutions (or 9% of the number of non-US citizens earning doctorates). On average, US universities confer about 1.8 doctorates to citizens of these 8 countries for every 100 granted at home. This ratio ranges from 17.4% for Bulgaria to 1% for Germany. In 2005-06, nearly 97 000 foreign scholars were working in the US. Nearly 25 000 scholars hosted in the US come from the EU-27. They account for about 29% of the total number of foreign scholars in the US. Among the top 10 countries of origin, there are four EU countries: Germany (5th), France (7th), the UK (8th) and Italy (9th). Compared to the size of the local academic workforce, 2.3 scholars hold position in the US per 100 working at home on average for the EU.
JRC Directorate:Growth and Innovation

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