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|Title:||Modelling the Heat Dynamics of Building Integrated and Ventilated Photovoltaic Modules|
|Authors:||FRILING Nynne; JIMÉNEZ Maria José; BLOEM Johannes; MADSEN Henrik|
|Citation:||ENERGY AND BUILDINGS vol. 41 no. 10 p. 1051-1057|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This paper deals with mathematical modelling of the heat transfer of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules. The efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module and its temperature are negatively correlated. It is therefore of interest to lower the temperature of the PV module by increasing the heat transfer from the PV module. The experiment and data originate from a test reference module the EC-JRC Ispra. The set-up provides the opportunity of changing physical parameters, the ventilation speed and the type of air flow, and this makes it possible to determine the preferable set-up. To identify best set-up, grey-box models consisting of stochastic differential equations are applied. The models are first order stochastic state space models. Maximum likelihood estimation and the extended Kalman filter are applied in the parameter estimation phase. To validate the estimated models, plots of the residuals and autocorrelation functions of the residuals are analyzed. The analysis has revealed that it is necessary to use non-linear state space models in order to obtain a satisfactory description of the PV module temperature, and in order to be able to distinguish the variations in the set-up. The heat transfer is increased when the forced ventilation velocity is increased, while the change in type of air flow does not have as striking influence. The residual analysis show that the best description of the PV module temperature is obtained when fins, disturbing the laminar flow and making it turbulent, are applied in the set-up combined with high level of air flow. The improved description by the model is mainly seen in periods with high solar radiation.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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