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|Title:||Chemical Analysis and Ozone Formation Potential of Exhaust from Dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) Light Duty Vehicles|
|Authors:||ADAM Thomas; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria; CLAIROTTE MICHAEL; DUANE Matthew; ELSASSER M.; KRASENBRINK Alois; LARSEN Bo; MANFREDI Urbano; MARTINI Giorgio; MONTERO Larisse; SKLORZ M.; ZIMMERMANN R.; PERUJO MATEOS DEL PARQUE Adolfo|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 45 no. 17 p. 2842-2848|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector’s contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionizatione time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPIeTOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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