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|Title:||Public Exposure by Natural Radionuclides in Drinking Water - Models for Effective Dose Assessment and Implications to Guidelines|
|Authors:||GRUBER VALERIA; MARINGER F.-J.|
|Citation:||Proceedings of Third European IRPA Congress 2010|
|Publisher:||International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||In Austria the legal framework to ¿Exposure by natural radionuclides in drinking water¿ is the Austrian Drinking Water Ordinance (Trinkwasserverordnung BGBl. II 304/2001) which implements exactly the European Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC. The minimum requirements on the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption are appointed in it. For radioactivity two indicative standard parameter limits are established ¿ tritium activity concentration of 100 Bq/l and total indicative dose TID (effective dose from radionuclides in drinking water except 3H, 40K, radon and radon progenies) of 0.1 mSv/a. The appointment and the evaluation of the TID are specified in the Austrian Standard OENORM S 5251:2005. Generally only the radionuclides 226Ra and 228Ra, dose conversion factors for adults and a yearly water consumption of 730 l are taken into account for dose calculation. In the paper the estimation of the TID according to the drinking water directive and the OENORM standard is compared to dose estimations for other age groups and other nuclides based on measurements carried out in Upper Austria. The dose contributions of 210Po and 210Pb clearly preponderate the dose contributions of the radium isotopes. An alternative model for dose estimations has been developed, which takes into account a daily water intake and a continuous excretion of activity from the body. The presented dose assessment clearly yields lower annual effective doses for the population. Present regulations and guidelines for drinking water monitoring and surveillance are discussed and evaluated with regard to the results of this study. Disagreement persists on methods and applied parameters for estimating total doses caused by natural radionuclides in drinking water within Europe, its individual countries and experts. This paper contributes supporting facts and feasibilities to yield a good basis for future guidelines.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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