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dc.contributor.authorBAER Inesen_GB
dc.contributor.authorVAN DE KREEKE Johannesen_GB
dc.contributor.authorLINSINGER Thomasen_GB
dc.contributor.authorROBOUCH Piotren_GB
dc.contributor.authorCORDEIRO RAPOSO Fernandoen_GB
dc.contributor.authorDE LA CALLE GUNTINAS Maria Beatrizen_GB
dc.identifier.citationTRAC-TRENDS IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 30 no. 2 p. 313-323en_GB
dc.description.abstractThe International Measurement Evaluation Program (IMEP) organized the IMEP-24 interlaboratory comparison after reports in the media about high levels of lead in toys. The aim of this comparison was to verify the laboratories' capacity to evaluate trace-element levels in a possible toy-like material according to the European Standard EN 71-3:1994. As test material, it used a former certified reference material containing levels of antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead and selenium around the limits set in the standard. Four expert laboratories confirmed the reference values (Xref) for all elements but Hg, and established a reference value for Hg. The scatter of the results reported by the participants was large, as expected, but showed a close to normal distribution around the reference values for five of the eight trace elements. The spread of results was mainly attributed to sampling and sample preparation. One major issue observed in this exercise was the lack of legislative rules about how to report the result, or, more specifically, the use of the analytical correction, which was introduced in EN 71-3:1994 to achieve consistent interpretation of results and which is to be applied when values are equal to or above the maximum limits set in the standard. Its application by the participants was very inconsistent and led to problems in their evaluation. There is clearly a need for clarification and for more formal regulations with regard to result reporting in order to minimize the risk of confusion. Participants were also asked to give their opinion with regard to the acceptability of the test material for the market. The majority correctly considered the material as non-compliant. However, almost one-third incorrectly assessed the material as compliant.en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipJRC.DG.D.6-Food Safety and Qualityen_GB
dc.publisherELSEVIER SCI LTDen_GB
dc.titleIMEP-24 Analysis of Eight Trace Elements in Toysen_GB
dc.typeArticles in periodicals and booksen_GB
JRC Directorate:Health, Consumers and Reference Materials

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