Title: EU-PEMS PM Evaluation Program - First Report
Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
Publication Year: 2010
JRC N°: JRC60064
ISBN: 978-92-79-17031-7
ISSN: 1018-5593
Other Identifiers: EUR 24543 EN
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC60064
DOI: 10.2788/2264
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: The European legislation has adopted the Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) as a tool to check the conformity of heavy-duty engines during their real operation. The current developments foresee the verification of gaseous emissions. The measurement and the control of in-service Particulate Mass (PM) emissions using on-board equipment has been delayed, as the technological status of the portable PM instrumentation had been judged insufficient. The European PEMS PM project was launched in 2007. Its main objective was to assess the technological status of the PEMS PM equipment. Initially, the main requirements set for the candidate instruments were: - to measure the PM mass, possibly according to existing standards; - to be designed for on-board testing regarding handling, test durations and power consumption; - to be advanced prototypes or commercially available equipment. An additional but important requirement was introduced: to be able to evaluate the in-service emissions (which is done in the United States through the Not To Exceed (NTE) approach), the European legislation has adopted a moving averaging window method. For such calculations, the accumulated PM mass had to be measured or estimated at any time during a test. The strategy used to evaluate the candidate instruments was simple and empirical. Using different engines, test cycles and fuels, the candidates were required to provide the best possible correlation with the reference laboratory systems. This ¿laboratory to portable¿ comparison was carried out for to the total PM mass measurements. The real-time PM results have been cross-correlated. In parallel to the program, some Particle Number (PN) measurements have been performed using equipment and test procedures in line with the European standards developed to test light-duty vehicles. This abstract provides the main findings of this project regarding PM, as presented and discussed in the final report of the European PEMS PM program. Furthermore, it gives the engine PN emissions and provides a first clue regarding the feasibility of PN for in-service testing. Different PM PEMS were evaluated in the lab with 3 heavy-duty engines which cover a wide range of emissions. The PM differences were in general 15% lower (SPC, OBS, micro-PSS) than the PM measured with a full dilution tunnel. Higher differences (35%) were found for MSS which measures soot. For the DPF engine the differences were >50% due to the volatile artifact on the filter. The PN differences between CVS and SPC were for all engines (and emission levels) within 15%. In addition to the PN method (non-volatiles measured with a CPC), MSS and DC were found to be sensitive enough at the low emission levels (post DPF). ETaPS and DMM (with dilution) were not sensitive enough for DPF engine. The conclusion of this work is that mass (on a filter) is not sensitive enough for low emission engines and the number method should be preferred. If PEMSs continue to use the filter method, then the real time instrument they use can affect the calculation factor as each instrument measures different particle property (number, surface, mass). Nevertheless, all these parameters do not affect the result enough to exceed the 10 mg/kWh limit of the future European HD regulation. They should be however seriously taken into account for lower emission levels.
JRC Directorate:Sustainable Resources

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
lbna24543enc.pdf2.01 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.