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|Title:||Proliferation Resistance and Safeguards|
|Authors:||HEDBERG Magnus; LUETZENKIRCHEN Klaus; MAYER Klaus|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NNPT or NPT) is the primary cornerstone of international efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Currently, 189 countries are party to the treaty, with only four sovereign states abstaining: India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea. The treaty is broadly interpreted as having three pillars: (1) nonproliferation, (2) disarmament, and (3) the right to the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Five countries are recognized by the NPT as nuclear weapon states (NWSs): the United States (US), the Soviet Union (obligations and rights now assumed by Russia), France, the United Kingdom, and the People¿s Republic of China. These five nations are also the five permanent members of the United Nations (UN) Security Council. In accordance with the NPT, the NWSs agree to not transfer nuclear weapons to a nonnuclear weapons state (NNWS) or assist NNWSs in acquiring nuclear weapons. Additionally, the NNWSs party to the NPT agree not to receive or manufacture nuclear weapons. NNWSs also agree to accept safeguards monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify that they are not diverting material derived from the peaceful use of nuclear technology to weapons. The NPT¿s preamble also contains language affirming the desire of all signatories to halt the production of nuclear weapons worldwide and to develop an additional treaty related to complete nuclear disarmament and liquidation, including their delivery vehicles. However, the NPT wording does not strictly require all signatories to actually conclude a disarmament treaty, but rather to negotiate in good faith. Some NNWSs belonging to the Non-Aligned Movement (an international organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power block) have interpreted the NPT as requiring the NWSs to disarm themselves and argue that these states have failed to meet their obligations.|
|JRC Directorate:||Nuclear Safety and Security|
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