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|Title:||Critical Infrastructures at Risk: A European Perspective|
|Authors:||MASERA Marcelo; GHEORGHE Adrian V.|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons, Inc|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Infrastructures such as energy, water supply, and telecommunication, are so vital, critical and ubiquitous that their incapacity or destruction would affect the security and the social welfare of any nation. Modern infrastructures cope with new types of emerging risks, due to a variety of threats/hazards such as natural disasters, malicious attacks, technical failures etc. Factors that have transformed the way how infrastructures are designed, developed, operated and de-commissioned relate to liberalization of markets. the interdependency among infrastructures, the increase of cross-border interconnections, changes in ICT, the manifestation of systemic risks. The present paper addresses an European view of critical infrastructures development by adopting risks and vulnerabilities performance within an all hazard approach practical construct. The presentation and the risk assessment landscape are fully articulated within the current legislative framework established by the European Commission and other appropriate legislative bodies. New entities such as European Critical Infrastructures (ECI) are described and documented in view of their protection. A number of principles are highlighted such as subsidiarity, complementary, confidentiality, stakeholder cooperation, proportionality, the advent of the concept of system of systems. A detailed investigation in view of the evolution of risk is made for Critical Electricity Infrastructures. A number of current trends such as the liberalization of the European electricity sector, the internationalization of the electricity system (e.g. interconnection among national grids), evolutionary unsuitability (i.e. current transmission networks are used in ways for which they were not initially designed), and the ubiquity of ICS are highlighted and investigated. The authors argue that i) the amalgamation of electric power systems and ICT produces a new construct, ¿Electricity plus Information¿ (E+I), ii) there is a need for risk governance, science and technology in order to cope with new complex situations imposed upon us by the advent of SoS architectures, the involvement of a large variety of stakeholders.|
|JRC Directorate:||Space, Security and Migration|
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