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|Title:||An overview of TACIS and PHARE nuclear safety projects related to thermalhydraulics|
|Authors:||PLA FREIXA PATRICIA; FARRAR Brian; DUCHAC Alexander; BIETH Michel|
|Citation:||PROGRESS IN NUCLEAR ENERGY vol. 58 p. 76-88|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Since 1991, the EC has been supporting the transition in Eastern European and ex-Soviet countries to market economy through the Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) and Poland Hungary Aid for Reconstruction of the Economy (PHARE) Programmes. One of the priority areas for TACIS and PHARE funding was nuclear safety. In this area the countries mainly concerned were Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and Kazakhstan for TACIS; Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Lithuania, Romania and Slovenia for PHARE. The final programme year of TACIS and PHARE was 2006. The projects of the 2006 programmes have reached completion in recent years. The TACIS Nuclear Safety and PHARE instruments were replaced in 2007 by the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation (INSC) and by the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), for the period 2007-2013. In these programmes, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) was providing Technical and Scientific Expertise in the areas of Design Safety, On-Site Assistance, Assistance to the Nuclear Safety Authorities, Waste, Safeguards and Dissemination of project results for the EC Directorate General External Relations (DG RELEX), responsible for the TACIS strategy and multi-annual indicative programming, EC Directorate General EuropeAid Co-operation Office (DG AIDCO), in charge of annual programming and implementation of all TACIS projects and EC Directorate General Enlargement (DG ELARG), responsible for PHARE projects. Several TACIS and PHARE projects were focussed on thermalhydraulic issues associated with VVER and RBMK reactor safety: accident analyses, severe accident analyses, accident management, experimental facilities and results databases, etc. These projects have included the application and evaluation of Eastern codes in addition to the transfer, adaptation and use of Western codes together with Western technologies, analysis experience, know-how and training of Eastern experts on the use of the codes, methodology and phenomena. This paper gives an overview of some of the projects carried out so far during more than a decade of TACIS and PHARE assistance. It illustrates in particular the objectives and briefly the results obtained, assessing the areas covered, main achievements and summarising the open issues.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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