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|Title:||Hazard Identification of Inhaled Nanomaterials: Making use of Short-term Inhalation Studies|
|Authors:||KLEIN Christoph; WIENCH Karin; WIEMANN Martin; MA-HOCK Lan; VAN RAVENZWAAY Ben; LANDSIEDEL Robert|
|Citation:||ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY vol. 86 p. 1137-1151|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||A major health concern for nanomaterials is their potential toxic effect after inhalation of dusts. Correspondingly, the core element of tier 1 in the currently proposed Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) is a short-term rat inhalation study (STIS) for this route of exposure. STIS comprises a comprehensive scheme of biological effects and marker determination in order to generate appropriate information on early key elements of pathogenesis, such as inflammatory reactions in the lung and indications of effects in other organs. Within the STIS information on the persistence, progression and/or regression of effects is obtained. The STIS also addresses organ burden in the lung and potential translocation to other tissues. Up to now STIS was performed in research projects and routine testing of nanomaterials. Meanwhile rat STIS results for more than 20 nanomaterials are available including the representative nanomaterials listed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN), which has endorsed a list of representative Manufactured Nanomaterials (MN) as well as a set of relevant endpoints to be addressed. Here, results of STIS carried out with different nanomaterials are discussed as case studies. The ranking of different nanomaterials potential to induce adverse effects and the ranking of the respective NOAEC is the same among the STIS and the corresponding sub-chronic and chronic studies. In another case study, a translocation of a coated silica nanomaterial was judged critical for its safety assessment. Thus, STIS enables application of the proposed ITS, as long as reliable and relevant in vitro methods for the tier 1 testing are still missing. Compared to traditional subacute and subchronic inhalation testing (according to OECD test guidelines (TG) 412 and 413), STIS uses less animals and resources and offers additional information on organ burden and pro-/regression of potential effects.|
|JRC Directorate:||Health, Consumers and Reference Materials|
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