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|Title:||Evaluation of standardless EDXRF analysis for the determination of elements on PM10 loaded filters|
|Authors:||YATKIN SINAN; GERBOLES Michel; BOROWIAK Annette|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 54 p. 568-582|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was compared to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the measurements of elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Pb, Mo, Cd, Sn and Sb) in particulate matter (PM10) collected on Teflon and two types of quartz filters at different sites. Two different calibration methods of EDXRF, linear calibration and standardless analysis, were studied. For the linear calibration, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were found to be site and filter type independent whereas Ca was only site independent. The site effect was evidenced for K, As, Ni, Ti, and V for quartz filter. The standardless EDXRF analysis showed better results than linear calibrations except for As, Co and V for Teflon filters and Cr and V for quartz filters. The estimated measurement uncertainties of standardless EDXRF analysis were calculated. They were found to be equal to or less than those field ones at certain masses for most of the studied elements. This suggests that the model equation to estimate measurement uncertainty of standardless EDXRF analysis covers all the uncertainty sources for certain elemental masses. It was found that standardless EDXRF analysis is able to quantify most of the elements studied, particularly on Teflon filters rather than quartz filters. The standardless EDXRF analysis complies with the data quality objectives (DQO) of European Directives to measure Pb in PM10 for three types of filters, even at concentrations lower than limit values (LV). The detection limits (MDL) of standardless EDXRF analysis for measuring As and Cd were found to be insufficient to meet the legislative requirements. The MDL of Ni was sufficiently low for measurements; however, measurement uncertainties remained higher than the DQO at the lower concentrations than LV.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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