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|Title:||Evaluation of notional nozzle approaches for CFD simulations of free-shear under-expanded hydrogen jets|
|Authors:||PAPANIKOLAOU Efthymia; BARALDI Daniele; KUZNETSOV Mikhail; VENETSANOS A. G.|
|Citation:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY vol. 37 no. 23 p. 18563-18574|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Several approaches are usually applied for modelling the source of high pressure underexpanded jets, ranging from the computationally expensive resolution of the jet’s shock structure to simple formulae (pseudo-source or notional nozzle approaches). However, the assumptions made in each approach introduce inaccuracies in the CFD calculations. The objective of this work was twofold; to compare and evaluate the performance of both selected notional nozzle approaches and turbulence models with experimental results of free-shear high momentum H2 round jets. The experimental data covered horizontal H2 releases issuing from small nozzles (0.25 to 1 mm diameter). Three two-equation turbulence models were chosen for the simulations, the popular standard k-ε, the Shear Stress Transport (SST) and the baseline (BSL) k-w model together with five notional nozzle approaches. The numerical results were presented in a systematic way in order to make general conclusions on the performance of both the approaches and models.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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