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|Title:||Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: An analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts|
|Authors:||LOISEL Rodica; PASAOGLU KILANC GUZAY; THIEL CHRISTIAN|
|Citation:||ENERGY POLICY vol. 65 p. 432–443|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This study analyses the impact of battery electric vehicles (BEV) on the future German power system, and to that, it projects the BEV hourly load profile by car size (mini, small, compact and big). By means of an optimization power plant dispatching model, the study assesses the optimal BEV charging/discharging strategy through grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) schemes. Two scenarios are tested, assuming 1.1 million passenger cars in 2030 (low case) and 4.8 million cars (high case). Results show that the additional 2% of power demand required to power these BEV does not hamper the system stability provided an optimal scheme G2V is applied. Moreover, such BEV deployment can contribute to further integrate wind and solar power generation. Applying a V2G scheme would increase capacity factors of base and mid load power plants, a higher integration of intermittent renewables, resulting in a decrease in the system costs. The evaluation of the profitability of BEV shows that applying V2G and G2V schemes are not viable economic options due to high battery investment cost, showing modest profits of maximum 6 euros by year by car, and even losses for a higher number of BEVs, for scale reasons. For BEV to become part of the power system, further incentives would be necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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