Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment|
|Authors:||SCHOLZ Stefan; SELA Erika; BLAHA Ludek; BRAUNBECK Thomas; GALAY-BURGOS Malyka; GARCÍA-FRANCO Maurizio; GUINEA Joaquin; SCHIRMER Kristin; TANNEBERGER Katrin; TOBOR-KAPŁON Marysia; WITTERS Hilda; BELANGER Scott; BENFENATI Emilio; CRETON Stuart; CRONIN Mark; EGGEN Rik; EMBRY Michelle; EKMAN Drew R.; GOURMELON Anne; HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; HARDY Barry; HUBESCH Bruno; JUNGMANN Dirk; LAMPI Mark; LEE Lucy; LÉONARD Marc; KÜSTER Eberhard; LILICRAP Adam; LUCKENBACH Till; MURK Albertina; NAVAS Jose M; PEIJNENBURG Willie; REPETTO Guillermo; SALINAS Edward; SCHÜÜRMANN Gerrit; SPIELMANN Horst; TOLLEFSEN Knut Erik; WALTER-ROHDE Susanne; WHALE Graham; KLÜVER Nils; WHEELER James; Hartung T.; WINTER Matthew J|
|Citation:||REGULATORY TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY vol. 67 no. 3 p. 506-530|
|Publisher:||ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e., mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although the focus of the article is on European regulations, the considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.|
|JRC Directorate:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Items in repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.