Title: A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment
Authors: SCHOLZ StefanSELA ErikaBLAHA LudekBRAUNBECK ThomasGALAY-BURGOS MalykaGARCÍA-FRANCO MaurizioGUINEA JoaquinSCHIRMER KristinTANNEBERGER KatrinTOBOR-KAPŁON MarysiaWITTERS HildaBELANGER ScottBENFENATI EmilioCRETON StuartCRONIN MarkEGGEN RikEMBRY MichelleEKMAN Drew R.GOURMELON AnneHALDER MARIA ELISABETHHARDY BarryHUBESCH BrunoJUNGMANN DirkLAMPI MarkLEE LucyLÉONARD MarcKÜSTER EberhardLILICRAP AdamLUCKENBACH TillMURK AlbertinaNAVAS Jose MPEIJNENBURG WillieREPETTO GuillermoSALINAS EdwardSCHÜÜRMANN GerritSPIELMANN HorstTOLLEFSEN Knut ErikWALTER-ROHDE SusanneWHALE GrahamKLÜVER NilsWHEELER JamesHartung T.WINTER Matthew J
Citation: REGULATORY TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY vol. 67 no. 3 p. 506-530
Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Publication Year: 2013
JRC N°: JRC83546
ISSN: 0273-2300
URI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230013001797
http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC83546
DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.10.003
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e., mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although the focus of the article is on European regulations, the considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.
JRC Directorate:Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection

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