Title: Development of an Adverse Outcome Pathway From Drug-Mediated Bile Salt Export Pump Inhibition to Cholestatic Liver Injury
Citation: TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES vol. 136 no. 1 p. 97-106
Publication Year: 2013
JRC N°: JRC83811
ISSN: 1096-6080
URI: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/09/20/toxsci.kft177.full.pdf
DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kft177
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: Abstract Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have been recently introduced in human risk assessment as pragmatic tools with multiple applications. As such, AOPs intend to provide a clear-cut mechanistic representation of pertinent toxicological effects. AOPs are typically composed of a molecular initiating event, a series of intermediate steps and key events, and an adverse outcome. In the current study, an AOP framework is proposed for cholestasis triggered by drug-mediated inhibition of the bile salt export pump transporter protein. For this purpose, an in-depth survey of relevant scientific literature was carried out in order to identify intermediate steps and key events. The latter include bile accumulation, the induction of oxidative stress and inflammation, and the activation of specific nuclear receptors. Collectively, these mechanisms drive both a deteriorative cellular response, which underlies directly caused cholestatic injury, and an adaptive cellular response, which is aimed at counteracting cholestatic insults. AOP development was performed according to OECD guidance, including critical consideration of the Bradford Hill criteria for weight of evidence assessment and the OECD key questions for evaluating AOP confidence. The postulated AOP is expected to serve as the basis for the development of new in vitro tests and the characterization of novel biomarkers of drug-induced cholestasis.
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