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dc.contributor.authorMICHELI Fiorenzaen_GB
dc.contributor.authorHALPERN Benjaminen_GB
dc.contributor.authorWALBRIDGE Shaunen_GB
dc.contributor.authorCIRIACO Saulen_GB
dc.contributor.authorFERRETTI Francescoen_GB
dc.contributor.authorFRASCHETTI Simonettaen_GB
dc.contributor.authorLEWISON Rebeccaen_GB
dc.contributor.authorNYKJAER Leoen_GB
dc.contributor.authorROSENBERG Andrew A.en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-03T01:01:41Z-
dc.date.available2014-01-02en_GB
dc.date.available2014-01-03T01:01:41Z-
dc.date.created2013-12-19en_GB
dc.date.issued2013en_GB
dc.date.submitted2013-11-13en_GB
dc.identifier.citationPLOS ONE vol. 8 no. 12 p. 1-10en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0079889en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC85844-
dc.description.abstractManagement of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land, accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipJRC.H.1-Water Resourcesen_GB
dc.format.mediumOnlineen_GB
dc.languageENGen_GB
dc.publisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCEen_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJRC85844en_GB
dc.titleCumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunitiesen_GB
dc.typeArticles in periodicals and booksen_GB
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0079889en_GB
JRC Directorate:Sustainable Resources

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