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|Title:||New Directions: The future of European urban air quality monitoring|
|Authors:||KUHLBUSCH Thomas; QUINCEY Paul; FULLER Gary W.; KELLY Frank; MUDWAY Ian; VIANA Mar; QUEROL Xavier; ALASTUEY Andres; KATSOUYANNI Klea; WEIJERS Ernie; BOROWIAK Annette; GEHRIG Robert; HUEGLIN Christoph; BRUCKMANN Peter; FAVEZ Olivier; SCIARE Jean; HOFFMANN Barbara; ESPENYTTRI Karl; TORSETH Kjetil; SAGER Uta; ASBACH Christof; QUASS Ulrich|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 87 p. 258-260|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Air quality, especially in urban areas, deteriorated with the industrial revolution and the following centuries. It is only during the last 60 years, following e.g. the infamous London smog (1952), that the health impacts of air pollution have been recognised and acted upon. In the developed world, abatement strategies and closure of major industries have led to significant air quality improvements (Harrison, 2004; Lamarque et al., 2010; Monks et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2011). Even so, the evaluation of current research within the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) process has clearly shown that, even today, investments in further air quality improvements will have a beneficial return financially, in terms of population health, environmental improvements and in quality of life (EEA, 2007; Stern, 2006). The measurement of air quality changed dramatically during the last century reflecting the concurrent knowledge about the adverse effects of air pollution, as well as the technological developments. The earliest measurement methods were often labour intensive, needed long analysis times and had a low time resolution. Routine measurements of air quality can be traced back to the Montsouris Manuscript Click here to download Manuscript: AMT_AtmosEnv_NewDirection_19_09_2013.docx Click here to view linked References 2 Observatory in Paris, where ozone was measured between 1876 and 1910 (Volz and Kley, 1988). Since then, scientists have pursued the concept of making measurements of air pollutants at fixed monitoring sites using well established, calibrated and comparable methods. Developments in air quality monitoring techniques during the second half of the 20th century enabled higher data quality to be obtained, with lower detection limits, using automated, continuous methods. One of the first real-time measurement techniques was initially developed by Fowler as early as 1949 for the measurement of e.g. CO2 (Keeling, 1960). Developments in online air quality monitoring enabled the development of public warning systems and immediate notifications if alert thresholds were exceeded. Short-term measures could then be taken to reduce emissions during pollution episodes. Measures included traffic reductions and closure of industrial facilities during e.g. winter smog episodes in Germany in the early 80’s (Bruckmann et al., 1986). Such reactive measures are now commonplace in new legislation (EC Directive, 2008; CFR 40, 2011; JAPC, 2011), along with public information to help vulnerable people to cope with pollution episodes (Kelly et al., 2012).|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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