Title: Development of a CO2 certification and monitoring methodology for Heavy Duty Vehicles – Proof of Concept report
Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
Publication Year: 2014
JRC N°: JRC87799
ISBN: 978-92-79-35147-1 (print); 978-92-79-35146-4 (pdf)
ISSN: 1018-5593 (print); 1831-9424 (online)
Other Identifiers: EUR 26452
OPOCE LD-NA-26452-EN-C (print); LD-NA-26452-EN-N (online)
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC87799
DOI: 10.2790/13046
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: The European Commission is preparing a strategy to address Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) CO2 emissions that, contrary to cars and vans CO2 emissions, are currently not regulated. Considering the current knowledge gap on HDV CO2 emissions, an important step appears to be the development of vehicle simulation, new testing methods and practices and other provisions for vehicle categorization and characterization. In order to investigate the plausibility of the aforementioned simulation-based approach an extensive experimental study was launched by the European Commission DG JRC and DG Climate Change, in collaboration with vehicle manufacturers (DAF, DAIMLER, IVECO) and external consultants (TU- Graz), also referred to as Proof of Concept study. Scope of this report is to summarize the first findings of the Proof of Concept activity and provide further insight with regard to future steps in the direction of the completion of the CO2 emissions monitoring and certification framework. As shown, simulation tools can reproduce both real world and chassis dyno performance of Heavy Duty vehicles with satisfactory accuracy. In this exercise and for the HDV categories tested, the simulated fuel consumption results were found always within a +-3.5% range compared to the real world measurement, and in most cases even closer (in the order of +-1.5%). Analysis of different simulation scenarios showed that the declaration method considered, although not finalised yet, can provide results that are representative of the real world performance of HDVs, provided that the appropriate input data are available. The accuracy of the simulation results was not equally high throughout the entire trips investigated, something that is attributed to lack of certain input data, the immaturity of the simulation methodology which is still being optimized and inherited model and measurement inaccuracies. Such deviations are expected to improve significantly in later versions of the methodology. Important effort is being put in the development of methods to generate input data. For the long haul, regional/delivery trucks and coaches the most important parameters are aerodynamic characteristics, rolling resistance, mass, engine map, gearbox map, axle efficiency and driver performance simulation. In the report a methodologies for deriving input parameters for aerodynamic and rolling resistances and engine maps were investigated and proven mature enough to support CO2 declaration. Further development and validation is necessary for the rest of the input parameters mentioned. For aerodynamic resistances the novel method tested provided results to good accuracy, presented high repeatability and good reproducibility and sensitivity characteristics. Although the declaration methodology in its present form has reached a satisfactory level regarding the ability to quantify CO2 emissions from specific categories of HDV, there are still issues of importance that should be addressed in the months to come through a possible validation phase and/or a broader pilot phase. Emphasis should be placed on expanding the pool of data available regarding vehicles and components, particularly for HDV categories not investigated in this report, finalize the details of existing input data calculation methodologies, derive default values for non-measurable/non standardized input, optimize the performance of the vehicle simulation software and align the declaration methodology with existing regulatory framework for HDVs.
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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