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dc.contributor.authorGIECHASKIEL Barouchen_GB
dc.contributor.authorMARTINI Giorgioen_GB
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-18T01:04:10Z-
dc.date.available2014-11-17en_GB
dc.date.available2014-11-18T01:04:10Z-
dc.date.created2014-10-27en_GB
dc.date.issued2014en_GB
dc.date.submitted2014-01-30en_GB
dc.identifier.citationSAE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FUELS AND LUBRICANTS vol. 7 no. 3 p. 1-15en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1946-3952en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC88729-
dc.description.abstractIn the current vehicle exhaust legislation particle number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm are prescribed for diesel vehicles. The legislation was extended to include gasoline direct injection (G-DI) vehicles since 2014. Target of this paper was to investigate whether smaller <23 nm solid particles are emitted from engines in considerable concentration focusing on G-DI engines. The literature survey and the experimental investigation of 5 vehicles showed that engines emit solid sub-23 nm particles. The average percentage over a cycle (WLTP) is higher for G-DIs (<60%) compared to diesel engines (20%). These percentages are relatively low considering the emission limit levels (6x10^11 p/km) and the repeatability (10-20%) and reproducibility of the particle number method (50%). These percentages are close to the percentages expected theoretically not to be counted due to the 23 nm cut-off size (5-15%). High emissions can be found when additives are added in the fuel or lubricant. Based on the information today, the PN legislation should remain the same. However measurements of particles <23 nm should go on in order to monitor current and future technologies.en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipJRC.F.8-Sustainable Transporten_GB
dc.format.mediumCD-ROMen_GB
dc.languageENGen_GB
dc.publisherSOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERSen_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJRC88729en_GB
dc.titleEngine Exhaust Solid Sub-23 nm Particles: II. Feasibility Study for Particle Number Measurement Systemsen_GB
dc.typeArticles in periodicals and booksen_GB
dc.identifier.doi10.4271/2014-01-2832en_GB
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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