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|Title:||Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels|
|Authors:||CHIRICO ROBERTO; CLAIROTTE MICHAEL; ADAM THOMAS W.; GIECHASKIEL BAROUCH; HERINGA M.F.; ELSSASER M.; MARTINI GIORGIO; MANFREDI URBANO; STREIBEL T.; SKLORZ M.; ZIMMERMANN R.; DE CARLO PETER; ASTORGA-LLORENS MARIA; BALTENSPERGER URS; PREVOT ANDRE S. H.|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS vol. 14 p. 16591-16639|
|Publisher:||COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were 5 fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic 10 hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass 15 spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions 20 factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission 25 factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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