Title: Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?
Authors: NEGRÃO DE CARVALHO RAQUELLOOS RobertFERRERO VALENTINAARUKWE AugustineAIT-AISSA SelimBADO-NILLES AnneBALZAMO StefaniaBAUN AndersBELKIN S.BLAHA LudekBRION FrançoisCONTI DanielaCREUSOTC NicolasESSIG YonaFLANDER-PUTRLE VesnaFÜRHACKER MariaGRILLARI-VOGLAUER ReginaHOGSTRAND ChristerJONÁŠH AdamKHARLYNGDOH BKHARLYNGDOH Joubert B.LUNDEBYE Anne-KatrineMODIG CarinaOLSSON Per-ErikPILLAI SmithaPOLAK NatasaPOTALIVO MonicaSANCHEZ WilfredSCHIFFERLI AndreaSCHIRMER KristinSFORZINI SusannaSTÜRZENBAUMI Stephen R.SØFTELAND LivTURK ValentinaVIARENGO AldoWERNER IngeYAGUR-KROLL SharonZOUNKOVÁ RadkaLETTIERI Teresa
Citation: TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES vol. 140 no. 2 p. 1-16
Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Publication Year: 2014
JRC N°: JRC90855
ISSN: 1096-6080
URI: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/13/toxsci.kfu118
http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC90855
DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu118
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on eleven organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iii) fish embryo toxicity, iv) impaired frog embryo development and v) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations.
JRC Directorate:Sustainable Resources

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