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|Title:||Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy|
|Authors:||FARCAL Lucian; TORRES ANDON Fernando; DI CRISTO Luisana; ROTOLI Biancamaria; BUSSOLATI Ovidio; BERGAMASCHI Enrico; MECH AGNIESZKA; HARTMANN NANNA; RASMUSSEN Kirsten; RIEGO SINTES Juan; PONTI Jessica; KINSNER-OVASKAINEN Agnieszka; ROSSI Francois; OOMEN Agnes; BOS Peter M. J.; CHEN Rui; BAI Ru; CHEN Chunying; ROCKS Louise; FULTON Norma; ROSS Bryony; HUTCHISON Gary R; TRAN C. Lang; MUES Sarah; OSSIG Rainer; SCHNEKENBURGER Jurgen; CAMPAGNOLO Luisa; VECCHIONE Lucia; PIETROIUSTI Antonio; FADEEL Bengt|
|Citation:||PLOS ONE vol. 10 no. 5 p. e0127174|
|Publisher:||PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches for risk assessment of NMs are needed. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Methods: Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterial Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry – hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO – uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques – precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of both types of ZnO, but not of TiO2 and SiO2. Using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) the TiO2 NMs were classified as potentially ‘weak-embryotoxic’ and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as ‘non-embryotoxic’. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2 displays a higher toxicity comparing with ZnO and SiO2. Importantly, the in vitro methodology applied could identify cell- and NM-specific responses, with a low variability observed between different test assays. Overall, this testing approach, based on a battery of cellular systems and test assays, complemented by an exhaustive physico-chemical characterization of NMs, could be deployed for the development of an ITS suitable for risk assessment of NMs. This study also provides a rich source of data for modeling of NM effects.|
|JRC Directorate:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
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