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|Title:||Chapter 18: International Policies on Bioenergy and Biofuels|
|Authors:||RAJCANIOVA Miroslava; CIAIAN PAVEL; DRABIK Dusan|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This chapter provides an overview of international biofuels polices and their main impacts on food prices and land use. Global biofuel production has experienced a rapid growth by increasing from almost a zero level in 1970 to 29 billion gallons in 2011; the United States, the European Union, and Brazil account for around 90 percent of the global biofuels production. Biofuels policies are widely implemented in most developed and many developing countries; Most commonly used biofuels policy instruments are biofuel mandates and consumption subsidies (tax credit and tax exemption). These policies have two important implications: first, they determine biofuel prices, depending on which policy is binding; and, second, biofuels may have unintended effects on other markets. In particular, interlinkages between biofuels and agricultural production lead to food price responses and land use adjustments.|
|JRC Directorate:||Growth and Innovation|
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