Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Brake wear particle emissions: A review|
|Authors:||GRIGORATOS THEODOROS; MARTINI Giorgio|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH vol. 22 no. 4 p. 2491-2504|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Traffic related sources have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter particularly within major cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic related sources are estimated to contribute almost equally to traffic related PM10 emissions. Non-exhaust particles can be generated either from non-exhaust sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the form of deposited material at the roadside and become resuspended due to traffic induced turbulence. Among non-exhaust sources, brake wear can be a significant PM contributor, particularly within areas with high traffic density and braking frequency. Studies mention that in urban environments brake wear can contribute up to 55% by mass to total non-exhaust traffic related PM10 emissions and up to 21% by mass to total traffic related PM10 emissions, while in freeways this contribution is lower due to lower braking frequency. As exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources - and therefore brake wear - to traffic related emissions will become more significant and will raise discussions on possible regulatory needs. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding PM resulting from brake wear and provide all the necessary information in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, emission factors and possible health effects.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Items in repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.