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|Title:||Vehicle Emission Factors of Solid Nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS)|
|Authors:||GIECHASKIEL Barouch; RICCOBONO FRANCESCO; VLACHOS THEODOROS; MENDOZA VILLAFUERTE PABLO; SUAREZ BERTOA RICARDO; FONTARAS GEORGIOS; BONNEL Pierre; WEISS MARTIN|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board measurements with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN) is new. In this paper we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both in the chassis dynamometer laboratory and on-road using PEMS-SPN. Through dedicated tests in the laboratory, we determined the influence of the measurement equipment, the ambient temperature, the driving style and route/cycle, and the extra mass of the PEMS system on the SPN emissions of vehicles. Then, we present the SPN emissions of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) (one of them Euro VI), two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one Port Fuel Injection (PFI), and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger cars (two of them Euro 6). Cold-start and accelerations had the biggest impact on SPN. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed on-road emissions around 2x10^13 p/km (Euro V truck) and 6x10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck), respectively. One of the DPF equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8x10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1x10^12 p/km. The on-road emissions of the GDI passenger cars spanned approximately from 8x10^11 p/km to almost 8x10^12 p/km. For the non-DPF vehicles, the on-road PEMS results remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.5 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests due to the different DPF fill state and passive regeneration during the tests. The findings of this study can (i) help improving the inventories on SPN emissions and (ii) assist policy makers in designing effective test procedures for measuring the SPN emissions of vehicles under real-world driving conditions.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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