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|Title:||Effects of alkylate fuel on exhaust emissions and secondary aerosol formation of a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter|
|Authors:||ZARDINI ALESSANDRO; PLATT Stephen; CLAIROTTE Michael; HADDAD Imad; TEMIME-ROUSSEL Brice; MARCHAND Nicholas; JEZEK Irena; DRINOVEC Luka; MOCNIK Grisa; SLOWIK Jay; MANFREDI Urbano; PREVOT Andre S. H.; BALTENSPERGER Urs; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 94 p. 307-315|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Regulated and unregulated emissions from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter were characterized during a legislative driving cycle in a certified laboratory. Scooter exhaust was analyzed at the tailpipe, in a dilution tunnel, and partly collected in a mobile smog chamber for photochemical aging. We present evidence that the photochemically aged exhaust from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter produces considerable amounts of secondary organic aerosol: from 1.5 to 22.0 mg/km, and from 5.5 to 6.6 mg/km, respectively. Tests were repeated after replacing the standard petrol and synthetic lube oil with an alkylate fuel (with low content of aromatic compounds) and ultra-clean lube oil (low ash forming potential). We observed emission reduction (with some exceptions) for several gaseous and particulate phase species, in particular for carbon monoxide (from 8% up to 38% and from 31% to 50%, for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively), particulate mass (from 32% up to 75% for the 2-stroke scooter), aromatic compounds (89% and 97% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooter, respectively), and secondary organic aerosol (from 87% to 100% and 99% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively). We attribute the organic aerosol reduction to the low content of aromatics in the alkylate fuel.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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